تفسیر و تعبیر شیعه از وضعیت زنان
Of course, women have an important role in Shiite religion; the generation of the prophet of Islam can only continue through his daughter Fatima. The latter is not only the prophet’s daughter, but she is also the mother of the Shiite Imams. She transfers the prophet’s legacy to the Shiite Imams, their sons, and all future generations. Fatima’s predominance as the wife of Ali b. Abi Talib—the prophet’s cousin—her son-in-law, and first Shiite Imam takes on divine proportions. This image of Fatima that the prophet transferred to the Shiites is represented with tremendous honor and respect in Shiite writings and traditions. This is an important contribution to the role of women in the collective memory and in Shiite tradition. In certain Shiite traditions, she is represented as the one who transmits the prophet’s enlightenment and soul to the prophet’s children and the Imams. She is a commentator on the Qurʾān, her divine knowledge giving her scientific expertise that is comparable to that of the Imams. Thus, the fact that she is a woman does not prevent the Shiite from considering her as a divine reference in Shiite religion, a reference that not only embodies divine purity and justice as well as eternal enlightenment, but also presents her as the teacher and divine guide of the Islamic umma. Fatima is always a role model in the Shiite community. The role model that she represents is not limited to her knowledge; she also has a dominant role as the wife of Imam Ali, the prophet’s successor, and she is the defender of his succession (contested by the Caliphs). The teachings of Ali b.Abi Talib, which later become the guide for all Shiite Imams, owe a lot to his wife’s spiritual influence. Such a status is neither introduced nor authorized for any woman in Sunni tradition, a doctrine that is completely different from that of the Shiites. And that has had its repercussions in Sunni thinking and actions with regard to this issue throughout history.
Aïcha, the prophet’s wife and the daughter of the first Caliph, is—contrary to Shiite tradition the favorite and predominant female figure in Sunni religion; she is mentioned as a narrator and a source of shari’a and jurisprudence, but her status has nothing to do with that of Fatima.
البته زنان در مذهب تشیع نقش مهمی دارند؛ نسل پیامبر اسلام تنها از طریق دخترش فاطمه (سلام الله علیها) می تواند ادامه یابد. نامبرده نه تنها دختر پیامبر است بلکه مادر امامان شیعه نیز هست. او میراث پیامبر اسلام را به امامان شیعه، پسرانشان و همه ی نسل های آینده منتقل می کند.
برتری فاطمه (سلام الله علیها) به عنوان همسر علی ابن ابی طالب پسر عموی پیامبر، داماد او و اولین امام شیعه به خواست و اراده الهی است. این تصویر از فاطمه که توسط پیامبر به شیعه ها منتقل شده است با احترام فراوان در سنت و مکتوبات شیعه نمایان است. این سهمی مهم پیرامون نقش زنان در طول تاریخ و حافظه و سنت شیعه است.
در سنت های شیعی خاصی، فاطمه به عنوان شخصی که روشنگری و روح پیامبر را به فرزندان او و امامان منتقل میکند، به تصویر کشیده شده است.